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K Ramkumar, known to his friends as Ram, has an enduring passion for triggering a discussion and joining in with gusto on a range of themes. He believes that every person has an inalienable right to express his/her view no matter how different it is to anyone else. In his book no view is unworthy or big or small. Every view from everyone deserves a consideration without getting caught up with the tyranny of agreement or disagreement.
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Strategy Retold

All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sun Tzu

Strategy is the term business has borrowed from military. This word has its origins from the Greek word Strategos or Strategia, meaning leading/guiding/moving an army. It became synonymous with military Generalship. The world of politics adopted it in the 19th century to signify out-thinking an adversary, mobilizing & maneuvering resources for achieving the objective. However, when this word moved into business it has been beset with confusion.

The legendary Hannibal of Carthage in the late 3rd century BC, in his wars against the Roman Empire, understood the awe and shock the cavalry had on the infantry. He knew that forging cavalry as a fighting unit required training of the horses, the cavalry man’s ability to fight mounted as well as dismounted, the horse and the rider to operate as a single unit, the key ability of the unit to hold its tight formation on the gallop, perceptive on the move communication with the horse and the companion riders, ability to break up and reform quickly for the next wave of attack and above all adaption to the terrain. It took the Romans one whole generation to observe and copy it and a generation more to master it. Such is the nature of strategy, which Sun Tzu aptly summarizes in the quote reproduced at the top.

The heart of a strategy:

Hannibal’s objective was not mastery of cavalry. His objective was Rome. He knew that until Rome experienced the military might of Carthage there could be no peaceful and mutually respectful coexistence of Carthage along with Rome in the Mediterranean. Without peace in the Mediterranean there was no commerce. Carthage was a trading and commercial power. Rome a military hegemon. He was clear that his objective can succeed only through an attacking move (strategy). The “heart” of any strategy hence is the choice between attack and defense, in order to achieve an objective. Rome’s response to Hannibal after the rout and decimation at Cannae in 216 BC was unleashing Marcellus and Fabius, called the sword and the shield. Rome realized that Hannibal can be defeated only by combining attack and defense intelligently in chosen battlegrounds. They chose to dig in and defend with Fabius as the General in uncompetitive landscapes and draw out and attack in competitive landscapes with Marcellus as the General.

At Stalingrad Marshal Zhukov chose to defend to the last man to repel the forces of the Third Reich. He quickly followed it up with relentless pursuit and attack of the retreating German Army all the way into Berlin. His objective had changed from protecting Russia to capturing Berlin before the western capitalists, in order to secure a commanding seat on the treaty table for the share of the post war world. The objective is the purpose for a strategy and not the strategy in itself. However, without the appropriate strategy the objective cannot be achieved.

No strategy can be without a clear definition of who the competition is and what the competitive landscape (micro market) is. Europe was not one competitive landscape. It had the British, French, Prussians (Germans), Austrians and the Russians as the major powers. Napoleon and Hitler learnt this bitter lesson by venturing into Russia, when their real adversary was Britain and the competitive landscape was where the British where. A shift in the understanding of the competition invariably shifts the competitive landscape and makes you fight a battle which is not your core objective and in a place where you are unfamiliar. Alternately in a competitive landscape you may choose to attack one competition and defend against another. A choice to attack or defend against all competition and in all competitive landscape is having no strategy at all.

The brain of the strategy:

The Generals understood that the choice of attack, defense or a combination mattered as much on the adversary and the nature of the battle field as on the leveraging and organization of the resources at his command. Thus the “brain” of any strategy is resource allocation. Resource allocation is not an equitable formula, where every regional/regimental satrap gets all that he wants. Every battlefield also does not warrant all the resources. Some needs to be over resourced while others have to be under resourced.

India’s former army chief General V.P. Malik, in a panel discussion at ICICI eloquently highlighted how leveraging the resources at command and optimizing its strike and defensive power is the brain of any strategy. No army ever has had all the resources (people, armament, equipment etc.) it wanted in all the battlefields. Generals who have been celebrated as strategists found a way to organize the resources at their command despite the constraints, shortfalls and even inferiority in capability and achieve their strategic objectives in a given competitive landscape. Prof. C.K Prahalad called it resource leverage.

The case in point is Gnats and Maruts much inferior aircraft winning the war of skies against the Sabers in the 1971 Indo-Pak war. The allies won the Atlantic war against the German submarines by reorganizing their fleet formations and using aircraft to torpedo them. The battle of Britain was won by the invention of radar and not by putting more & more aircraft into the sky. Air Chief Marshal Hugh Dowding in fact grounded the British aircraft, hid them in underground hangers and force multiplied them by using a combination of radar detection and unleashing  lethal antiaircraft batteries on the Luftwaffe intruders. He preserved and saved his aircraft for another battle on another day and inside the enemy territory. He defended and conserved resources so that he had resources to attack on a chosen competitive landscape. This became the legendary Dowding system which won the battle of the skies for the British. Air Chief Marshal P.C. Lal, General Malik and Air Chief Marshal Dowding leveraged limited resources as their strategy to achieve their objectives. Technology, ingenuity and strong risk appetite determine the quality and nature of resource leverage. Discipline, tight formation, agile mobility and flexibility of all resources makes resource leverage a force multiplier.  A strategy with a heart (attack, defense, combination) without the brain (resource leverage) will be still born.

The body of the strategy:

The “body” of any strategy is its structure. A brilliant business strategist and not a military General taught me what structure in strategy is. In 2002 Mr. Kamath the then MD & CEO of ICICI Ltd. asked me to draw up the structure for ICICI in the post reverse merger state. I promptly did what all of us do; produced an organization structure with boxes and lines and took it to him. He then taught me a lesson that boxes and lines do not make a structure, it is all about defining authority, responsibility and information flow aligned to the output required. He told me that this cannot be presented through boxes and lines. A structure is an arrangement of the resources at your command in the most optimal manner. Any structure has to be aligned to the heart and brain of the strategy.

At Gaugamela in 331 BC Alexander realized that his army was badly out-numbered; was a fifth of the Persian forces, so he used structure to overcome the resource inferiority on the field. He deployed for the first time the novel structure of “refused flanks”.  All armies met each other with formations which were parallel to each other. The innovations were limited to where they placed the infantry, elephants, archer and the cavalry on this straight line. But Alexander innovated by refusing to adopt a formation parallel to Darius’s straight line formation. He arranged his cavalry on either flank at a 210 degree angle to the Persian forces and contrary to logic placed the cavalry at the farthest end of this off-set line. This forced the Persians to move the parts of the army facing Alexander’s Cavalry forward faster to engage Alexander’s Cavalry, which refused to charge. This threw the Persian line asunder and Alexander with his commando unit of companion cavalry punched through this gap and went straight for Darius. The rest they say is history.


Like Alexander Mr. Kamath taught me any structure should be a loose, plug and play formation to maximize the resource leverage. He calls it the tight-loose fit: A structure that is tight in its ability & authority structure but loose in its absolute ownership of resources can break and reform quickly when required and respond to the changes in the competitive landscape effectively and with agility. Who commands a tactical formation and who commands a strategic formation is as critical to the structure as much as the structure itself. Hannibal never trusted his cavalry with anyone else other than the lightning Hasdurbal. Similarly General Eisenhower trusted with Patton the command of the third army and with Monty the Infantry. A defensive commander like Monty would have been a disaster when attack was the strategy; which Patton fitted well. There is more to structure than the rigid lifeless boxes and lines; a flexible body with nimble joints obeys the command of the heart and brain better. Any structure which does not marry up combat, support and communication units is destined to fail.

The central nervous system of the strategy:

The design of the Communication system is the “central nervous system” of the strategy.  Any field command, fighting a battle only on the basis of information flow from the center, without ability and freedom to collect field level intelligence and act is doomed to fail. The ability to synthesize and marry up field level intelligence with the strategic command supplied information, is the key for the heart and the body of strategy to leverage the brain. Competitive and proprietary knowledge & information always trumps over public information. It is never the map but the insight into a map which makes it proprietary; more importantly communicating this strategic insight to the right field unit at the right time, separates the victors from the losers. Information overload and information complexity often immobilizes even the best strike force. Lack of field intelligence and over reliance on Berlin made the Germans expect the attack at Calais while the attack really came at Normandy. Bluff and misinforming the adversary is as potent an element of communication as decoding the bluff and misinformation by the adversary.  Kargil is the result of poor local level intelligence. Breaking the “Enigma” code machine was critical for the allies’ victory in Europe. Pearl Harbor is the classical example of the breakdown of the central nervous system.


There can be no strategy without a credible choice set. Having only one course of action for all competition and all competitive landscape is no strategy. The General’s risk appetite eventually decides the selection of the choice be it the heart, brain, body or the central nervous system of the strategy. The choice is not about the objective but leading/guiding/moving (Strategos) the people to the objective. Strategy bridges the thought-action gap. Every time an institution bemoans on its ability to execute you can be sure that it is because they have not got their strategy right. Strategy in the end is the ability of the leader to conceptualize, design and mobilize the utmost maneuverability of the limited resources at his command, by leveraging them.

11 comments on “Strategy Retold
  1. Brillian says:

    Very insightful and simplified. Sharing with my team to help them decode “strategy”


  2. Monangi Srinivas says:

    Too good an article. Good strategy is like half battle won. Good part of this article is that it articulates what is a good strategy. Thank u for sharing.

  3. Lekh Raj says:

    Amazing…..very insightful with beautiful references from the World History….One gets inspired to read more to learn from history

  4. Rathin Lahiri says:

    This is a brilliant article…one of the best I have read giving cues on ‘Strategy in Action’ ..On my re- read list..

  5. Sai Prasad Somayajula says:

    This was brilliant articulation. My takeaway from this post is – life cycle of any strategy goes through the stages of conception, articulation and execution to achieve an objective. The power of strategy lies in its simplicity. All these three stages have to be simplified for understanding and execution. From our contemporary world, google’s 10x strategy (any new product or service should result in 10x improvement over the existing or else it should not be conceived at all) is one such simplified yet powerful strategy. The importance of communication system in a strategy is well stressed in this post. In a leadership moment that does not involve groups and teams, Malcolm Gladwell aptly describes the strategy conceived and implemented by seemingly insignificant David in winning over the mighty Goliath, in the latest book “David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits and the Art of Battling Giants”

  6. Harsha says:

    Good article.Though a bit tough for me to understand it completely.Strategy helps in achieving goal and Japanese follow Kaizen Technique as their strategy for competitive success where everyone is involved in making improvements rather than only leaders.

  7. Anirudh Mithal says:

    ‘Strategy in the end is the ability of the leader to conceptualize, design and mobilize the utmost maneuverability of the limited resources at his command, by leveraging them.’

    Very relevant topic and tackled exceedingly well. ‘strategy’ might have originated in good old days in context of defense forces and still is used by them very frequently but I can state with my experience of Indian Railways where I have worked in very senior appointments for over 35 years and subsequently my exposure to MNCs and life in general,without hesitation that right STRATEGY in dealing with any situation personal or professional is a must.
    Author has summed up in last line very well. In my opinion nothing can be added to it. Hats off

  8. Ravish says:

    Very well defined, Now cant imagine a world with out startergy for any process and development.


    The article actually gives a boiling impact with all those military and warfare quotes/stories.
    Decoding the same to each individuals level – Startegies are formulated at every level in the battlefield or an organizational hierarchy . Every soldier in a war follows the instructions of his general as per the macro strategy, but at the same time knits a micro strategy to take head on with the enemy in form of competition.
    The difference is the thought process behind the strategy. The seniors at the top hierarchy of battlefield thinks of how to make the optimum utilization of the limited resources available for giving the maximum returns to the stake holders. Whereas at ground level the strategy is like a guerrilla warfare, since in a limited time frame the soldier (sales individual) have to put a deep impact on the competition to make him restless and share the mind space of the customer to grab the business opportunity.

  10. Naresh says:

    Brilliant article about the meaning of Strategy redefined.

    Good read to motivate our creative quotient.

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About the Author

K Ramkumar, known to his friends as Ram, has an enduring passion for triggering a discussion and joining in with gusto on a range of themes. He believes that every person has an inalienable right to express his/her view no matter how different it is to anyone else. In his book no view is unworthy or big or small. Every view from everyone deserves a consideration without getting caught up with the tyranny of agreement or disagreement.
Read more »